September 21, 2014
mindblowingscience:

Longer distance quantum teleportation achieved

Physicists at the University of Geneva have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers of optical fiber.

The experiment, carried out in the laboratory of Professor Nicolas Gisin, constitutes a first, and simply pulverises the previous record of 6 kilometres achieved ten years ago by the same UNIGE team. Passing from light into matter, using teleportation of a photonto a crystal, shows that, in quantum physics, it is not the composition of a particle which is important, but rather its state, since this can exist and persist outside such extreme differences as those which distinguish light from matter. The results obtained by Félix Bussières and his colleagues are reported in the latest edition of Nature Photonics.
Quantum physics, and with it the UNIGE, is again being talked about around the world with the Marcel Benoist Prize for 2014 being awarded to Professor Nicolas Gisin, and the publication of experiments in Nature Photonics. The latest experiments have enabled verifying that the quantum state of a photon can be maintained whilst transporting it into a crystal without the two coming directly into contact. One needs to imagine the crystal as a memory bank for storing the photon’s information; the latter is transferred over these distances using the teleportation effect.
Teleporting Over 25 Kilometres
The experiment not only represents a significant technological achievement but also a spectacular advance in the continually surprising possibilities afforded by the quantum dimension. By taking the distance to 25 kilometres of optical fibre, the UNIGE physicists have significantly surpassed their own record of 6 kilometres, the distance achieved during the first long-distance teleportation achieved by Professor Gisin and his team in 2003.
Memory After Triangulation
So what exactly is this testing of quantum entaglement and its properties? One needs to imagine two entangled photons -in other words two photons inextricably linked at the most infinitesimal level by their joint states. One is propelled along an optical fibre (the 25 kilometres mentioned earlier), but not the other, which is sent to a crystal. It is a bit like a game of billiards, with a third photon hitting the first which obliterates both of them. Scientists measure this collision. But the information contained in the third photon is not destroyed -on the contrary it finds its way to the crystal which also contains the second entangled photon.
Thus, as Félix Bussières the lead author of this publication explains, one observes “that the quantum state of the two elements of light, these two entangled photons which are like two Siamese twins, is a channel that empowers the teleportation from light into matter”.
From there, it is a small step to conclude that, in quantum physics, the state takes precedence over the ‘vehicle’ - in other words an item’s quantum properties transcend classical physical properties. A step that maybe now one can take.
More information: Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory, Nature Photonics, DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.215

mindblowingscience:

Longer distance quantum teleportation achieved

Physicists at the University of Geneva have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers of optical fiber.

The experiment, carried out in the laboratory of Professor Nicolas Gisin, constitutes a first, and simply pulverises the previous record of 6 kilometres achieved ten years ago by the same UNIGE team. Passing from light into matter, using  of a to a crystal, shows that, in quantum physics, it is not the composition of a particle which is important, but rather its state, since this can exist and persist outside such extreme differences as those which distinguish light from matter. The results obtained by Félix Bussières and his colleagues are reported in the latest edition of Nature Photonics.

Quantum physics, and with it the UNIGE, is again being talked about around the world with the Marcel Benoist Prize for 2014 being awarded to Professor Nicolas Gisin, and the publication of experiments in Nature Photonics. The latest experiments have enabled verifying that the  of a photon can be maintained whilst transporting it into a crystal without the two coming directly into contact. One needs to imagine the crystal as a memory bank for storing the photon’s information; the latter is transferred over these distances using the teleportation effect.

Teleporting Over 25 Kilometres

The experiment not only represents a significant technological achievement but also a spectacular advance in the continually surprising possibilities afforded by the quantum dimension. By taking the distance to 25 kilometres of optical fibre, the UNIGE physicists have significantly surpassed their own record of 6 kilometres, the distance achieved during the first long-distance teleportation achieved by Professor Gisin and his team in 2003.

Memory After Triangulation

So what exactly is this testing of quantum entaglement and its properties? One needs to imagine two  -in other words two photons inextricably linked at the most infinitesimal level by their joint states. One is propelled along an  (the 25 kilometres mentioned earlier), but not the other, which is sent to a crystal. It is a bit like a game of billiards, with a third photon hitting the first which obliterates both of them. Scientists measure this collision. But the information contained in the third photon is not destroyed -on the contrary it finds its way to the crystal which also contains the second entangled photon.

Thus, as Félix Bussières the lead author of this publication explains, one observes “that the quantum state of the two elements of light, these two entangled photons which are like two Siamese twins, is a channel that empowers the teleportation from light into matter”.

From there, it is a small step to conclude that, in , the state takes precedence over the ‘vehicle’ - in other words an item’s quantum properties transcend classical physical properties. A step that maybe now one can take.

More information: Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory, Nature PhotonicsDOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2014.215

(via shychemist)

September 21, 2014
Saturn at Equinox 

Saturn at Equinox 

(Source: apod.nasa.gov)

September 20, 2014
pennyfornasa:

Happy Software Freedom Day! Find Out How NASA Has Contributed To Open Source Software:“Back in 2008 and 2009, people were still trying to figure out what ‘cloud’ meant. While lots of people were calling themselves ‘cloud enabled’ or ‘cloud ready,’ there were few real commercial offerings. With so little clarity on the issue, there was an opportunity for us to help fill that vacuum.” - Raymond O’Brien, +NASA Ames Research Center  Needing a way to standardize web space, a team of researchers at NASA Ames began a 2008 project known as NASA.net. The project offered a way to consolidate web development tools and data resources which heightened efficiency between all facets of the space agency. William Eshagh, another key contributor from NASA.net’s early days, aimed to find a way for web developers to upload code to a platform that was universally utilized.“The basic idea was that the web developer would write their code and upload it to the website, and the website would take care of everything else,” according to Eshagh.Still requiring an “infrastructure service” to manage the large quantities of data that NASA accumulates on a daily basis, the scope of the Ames project switched gears, and NASA.net was reorganized as Nebula. Rather than simply setting standards and providing a platform for web developers, the Nebula team would construct an open source compute controller. Early on, the collaborative nature of Nebula benefited development — as anyone with the understanding of the technology and desire could access the code and provide improvements. Raymond O’Brien, who remained on the Nebula team, reiterated the appeal of Nebula’s open source identity.“From the beginning, we wanted this project to involve a very large community—private enterprises, academic institutions, research labs—that would take Nebula and bring it to the next level. It was a dream, a vision. It was that way from the start,” said O’Brien.An early obstacle the pure open sourced project had to overcome was a piece of software known as the cloud controller, a pivotal segment of the project if the end users are to access computers or data. At this time, the existing tools were either written in the incorrect programming language or were closed source — not usable due to licensing limitations. However, It only took the Nebula team a matter of days to build a new cloud controller from scratch, and immediately began to attract interest from Rackspace Inc.“We believed we were addressing a general problem that would have broad interest,” stated Eshagh. “As it turns out, that prediction couldn’t have been more accurate.”Rackspace, known for providing open source storage, was set to begin construction of a similar cloud controller to what Nebula just released. Given the technical similarities between the two teams, Rackspace and Nebula began a partnership known as OpenStack — and a community of developers around the world would contribute towards the construction of what would become one of the most successful open source cloud operating systems.The future of OpenStack, and other open source projects, are bright due the early efforts of the NASA.net team at Ames. Due to the initial devotion to keeping the project open source in those early days, a large majority of contributions to the OpenStack code came from community efforts outside of NASA. Today, on Software Freedom Day, be sure to checkout the following resources related to the OpenStack cloud, a NASA Spinoff.Sources:1. Web Solutions Inspire Cloud Computing Softwarehttp://spinoff.nasa.gov/Spinoff2012/it_2.html2. Nebula, NASA, and OpenStackhttp://open.nasa.gov/blog/2012/06/04/nebula-nasa-and-openstack/3. Software Freedom Dayhttp://softwarefreedomday.org/

pennyfornasa:

Happy Software Freedom Day! Find Out How NASA Has Contributed To Open Source Software:

“Back in 2008 and 2009, people were still trying to figure out what ‘cloud’ meant. While lots of people were calling themselves ‘cloud enabled’ or ‘cloud ready,’ there were few real commercial offerings. With so little clarity on the issue, there was an opportunity for us to help fill that vacuum.” - Raymond O’Brien, +NASA Ames Research Center 

Needing a way to standardize web space, a team of researchers at NASA Ames began a 2008 project known as NASA.net. The project offered a way to consolidate web development tools and data resources which heightened efficiency between all facets of the space agency. William Eshagh, another key contributor from NASA.net’s early days, aimed to find a way for web developers to upload code to a platform that was universally utilized.

“The basic idea was that the web developer would write their code and upload it to the website, and the website would take care of everything else,” according to Eshagh.

Still requiring an “infrastructure service” to manage the large quantities of data that NASA accumulates on a daily basis, the scope of the Ames project switched gears, and NASA.net was reorganized as Nebula. Rather than simply setting standards and providing a platform for web developers, the Nebula team would construct an open source compute controller. Early on, the collaborative nature of Nebula benefited development — as anyone with the understanding of the technology and desire could access the code and provide improvements. Raymond O’Brien, who remained on the Nebula team, reiterated the appeal of Nebula’s open source identity.

“From the beginning, we wanted this project to involve a very large community—private enterprises, academic institutions, research labs—that would take Nebula and bring it to the next level. It was a dream, a vision. It was that way from the start,” said O’Brien.

An early obstacle the pure open sourced project had to overcome was a piece of software known as the cloud controller, a pivotal segment of the project if the end users are to access computers or data. At this time, the existing tools were either written in the incorrect programming language or were closed source — not usable due to licensing limitations. However, It only took the Nebula team a matter of days to build a new cloud controller from scratch, and immediately began to attract interest from Rackspace Inc.

“We believed we were addressing a general problem that would have broad interest,” stated Eshagh. “As it turns out, that prediction couldn’t have been more accurate.”

Rackspace, known for providing open source storage, was set to begin construction of a similar cloud controller to what Nebula just released. Given the technical similarities between the two teams, Rackspace and Nebula began a partnership known as OpenStack — and a community of developers around the world would contribute towards the construction of what would become one of the most successful open source cloud operating systems.

The future of OpenStack, and other open source projects, are bright due the early efforts of the NASA.net team at Ames. Due to the initial devotion to keeping the project open source in those early days, a large majority of contributions to the OpenStack code came from community efforts outside of NASA. Today, on Software Freedom Day, be sure to checkout the following resources related to the OpenStack cloud, a NASA Spinoff.

Sources:
1. Web Solutions Inspire Cloud Computing Software
http://spinoff.nasa.gov/Spinoff2012/it_2.html
2. Nebula, NASA, and OpenStack
http://open.nasa.gov/blog/2012/06/04/nebula-nasa-and-openstack/
3. Software Freedom Day
http://softwarefreedomday.org/

September 20, 2014
stargateatl:

Evening of the Cosmos (Sunset) Wallpaper -1440x900 #wallpaper #wallpapers #art #artwallpapers #astronomy

stargateatl:

Evening of the Cosmos (Sunset) Wallpaper -1440x900 #wallpaper #wallpapers #art #artwallpapers #astronomy

September 18, 2014
mindblowingscience:

This Massive Planet Is Causing Its Parent Star To Age Prematurely

There’s a gas giant located about 330 light-years from here that’s not only unusually large, it’s also orbiting its host star at an incredibly close distance. According to a new study, this combination of factors is wreaking havoc on the star’s innards.
The exoplanet is named WASP-18b and it’s about 10 times heavier than Jupiter. So this thing is absolutely huge. Not only that, it’s so close to its parent star, WASP-18, that it completes one single orbit in less than 23 hours. It’s one of the most extreme examples of a hot Jupiter that scientists have ever seen.
A team led by Ignazio Pillitteri of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo in Italy dated WASP-18 between 500 million and 2 billion years old. That’s young by cosmological standards. By comparison, our sun, which is at its mid-life, is about 5 billion years old.
But here’s the thing: Younger stars tend to be more active, spewing out stronger magnetic fields, larger flares, and more intense X-ray emissions than their older counterparts. That’s why things are weird with WASP-18. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory explains:

Magnetic activity, flaring, and X-ray emission are linked to the star’s rotation, which generally declines with age. However, when astronomers took a long look with Chandra at WASP-18 they didn’t detect any X-rays. Using established relations between the magnetic activity and X-ray emission of stars, as well as its actual age, researchers determined WASP-18 is about 100 times less active than it should be.
"We think the planet is aging the star by wreaking havoc on its innards," said co-author Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The researchers argue that tidal forces created by the gravitational pull of the massive planet – similar to those the moon has on Earth’s tides, but on a much larger scale – may have disrupted the magnetic field of the star. [emphasis added]
The strength of the magnetic field depends on the amount of convection in the star, or how intensely hot gas stirs the interior of the star.
"The planet’s gravity may cause motions of gas in the interior of the star that weaken the convection," said co-author Salvatore Sciortino also of INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo in Italy. "This has a domino effect that results in the magnetic field becoming weaker and the star to age prematurely."

WASP-18 is particularly vulnerable to the impact of tidal forces owing to its convection zone, which is narrower than most stars.
Read the entire study at the pre-print journal arXiv: “No X-rays from WASP-18. Implications for its age, activity, and the influence of its massive hot Jupiter”.
Image: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/I.Pillitteri et al; Optical: DSS; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

mindblowingscience:

This Massive Planet Is Causing Its Parent Star To Age Prematurely

There’s a gas giant located about 330 light-years from here that’s not only unusually large, it’s also orbiting its host star at an incredibly close distance. According to a new study, this combination of factors is wreaking havoc on the star’s innards.

The exoplanet is named WASP-18b and it’s about 10 times heavier than Jupiter. So this thing is absolutely huge. Not only that, it’s so close to its parent star, WASP-18, that it completes one single orbit in less than 23 hours. It’s one of the most extreme examples of a hot Jupiter that scientists have ever seen.

A team led by Ignazio Pillitteri of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo in Italy dated WASP-18 between 500 million and 2 billion years old. That’s young by cosmological standards. By comparison, our sun, which is at its mid-life, is about 5 billion years old.

But here’s the thing: Younger stars tend to be more active, spewing out stronger magnetic fields, larger flares, and more intense X-ray emissions than their older counterparts. That’s why things are weird with WASP-18. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory explains:

Magnetic activity, flaring, and X-ray emission are linked to the star’s rotation, which generally declines with age. However, when astronomers took a long look with Chandra at WASP-18 they didn’t detect any X-rays. Using established relations between the magnetic activity and X-ray emission of stars, as well as its actual age, researchers determined WASP-18 is about 100 times less active than it should be.

"We think the planet is aging the star by wreaking havoc on its innards," said co-author Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The researchers argue that tidal forces created by the gravitational pull of the massive planet – similar to those the moon has on Earth’s tides, but on a much larger scale – may have disrupted the magnetic field of the star. [emphasis added]

The strength of the magnetic field depends on the amount of convection in the star, or how intensely hot gas stirs the interior of the star.

"The planet’s gravity may cause motions of gas in the interior of the star that weaken the convection," said co-author Salvatore Sciortino also of INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo in Italy. "This has a domino effect that results in the magnetic field becoming weaker and the star to age prematurely."

WASP-18 is particularly vulnerable to the impact of tidal forces owing to its convection zone, which is narrower than most stars.

Read the entire study at the pre-print journal arXiv: “No X-rays from WASP-18. Implications for its age, activity, and the influence of its massive hot Jupiter”.

Image: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/I.Pillitteri et al; Optical: DSS; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

(via shychemist)

September 17, 2014
mindblowingscience:

Hubble Helps Find Smallest Known Galaxy Containing a Supermassive Black Hole

Astronomers using data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and ground observation have found an unlikely object in an improbable place — a monster black hole lurking inside one of the tiniest galaxies ever known.
The black hole is five times the mass of the one at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. It is inside one of the densest galaxies known to date — the M60-UCD1 dwarf galaxy that crams 140 million stars within a diameter of about 300 light-years, which is only 1/500th of our galaxy’s diameter.
If you lived inside this dwarf galaxy, the night sky would dazzle with at least 1 million stars visible to the naked eye. Our nighttime sky as seen from Earth’s surface shows 4,000 stars.
The finding implies there are many other compact galaxies in the universe that contain supermassive black holes. The observation also suggests dwarf galaxies may actually be the stripped remnants of larger galaxies that were torn apart during collisions with other galaxies rather than small islands of stars born in isolation.
“We don’t know of any other way you could make a black hole so big in an object this small,” said University of Utah astronomer Anil Seth, lead author of an international study of the dwarf galaxy published in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature.
Seth’s team of astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini North 8-meter optical and infrared telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea to observe M60-UCD1 and measure the black hole’s mass. The sharp Hubble images provide information about the galaxy’s diameter and stellar density. Gemini measures the stellar motions as affected by the black hole’s pull. These data are used to calculate the mass of the black hole.
Black holes are gravitationally collapsed, ultra-compact objects that have a gravitational pull so strong that even light cannot escape. Supermassive black holes — those with the mass of at least one million stars like our sun — are thought to be at the centers of many galaxies.
The black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy has the mass of four million suns. As heavy as that is, it is less than 0.01 percent of the Milky Way’s total mass. By comparison, the supermassive black hole at the center of M60-UCD1, which has the mass of 21 million suns, is a stunning 15 percent of the small galaxy’s total mass.
“That is pretty amazing, given that the Milky Way is 500 times larger and more than 1,000 times heavier than the dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1,” Seth said.
One explanation is that M60-UCD1 was once a large galaxy containing 10 billion stars, but then it passed very close to the center of an even larger galaxy, M60, and in that process all the stars and dark matter in the outer part of the galaxy were torn away and became part of M60.
The team believes that M60-UCD1 may eventually be pulled to fully merge with M60, which has its own monster black hole that weighs a whopping 4.5 billion solar masses, or more than 1,000 times bigger than the black hole in our galaxy. When that happens, the black holes in both galaxies also likely will merge. Both galaxies are 50 million light-years away.
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., in Washington.
For images and more information about Hubble, visit:
http://www.nasa.gov/hubble

mindblowingscience:

Hubble Helps Find Smallest Known Galaxy Containing a Supermassive Black Hole

Astronomers using data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and ground observation have found an unlikely object in an improbable place — a monster black hole lurking inside one of the tiniest galaxies ever known.

The black hole is five times the mass of the one at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. It is inside one of the densest galaxies known to date — the M60-UCD1 dwarf galaxy that crams 140 million stars within a diameter of about 300 light-years, which is only 1/500th of our galaxy’s diameter.

If you lived inside this dwarf galaxy, the night sky would dazzle with at least 1 million stars visible to the naked eye. Our nighttime sky as seen from Earth’s surface shows 4,000 stars.

The finding implies there are many other compact galaxies in the universe that contain supermassive black holes. The observation also suggests dwarf galaxies may actually be the stripped remnants of larger galaxies that were torn apart during collisions with other galaxies rather than small islands of stars born in isolation.

“We don’t know of any other way you could make a black hole so big in an object this small,” said University of Utah astronomer Anil Seth, lead author of an international study of the dwarf galaxy published in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature.

Seth’s team of astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini North 8-meter optical and infrared telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea to observe M60-UCD1 and measure the black hole’s mass. The sharp Hubble images provide information about the galaxy’s diameter and stellar density. Gemini measures the stellar motions as affected by the black hole’s pull. These data are used to calculate the mass of the black hole.

Black holes are gravitationally collapsed, ultra-compact objects that have a gravitational pull so strong that even light cannot escape. Supermassive black holes — those with the mass of at least one million stars like our sun — are thought to be at the centers of many galaxies.

The black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy has the mass of four million suns. As heavy as that is, it is less than 0.01 percent of the Milky Way’s total mass. By comparison, the supermassive black hole at the center of M60-UCD1, which has the mass of 21 million suns, is a stunning 15 percent of the small galaxy’s total mass.

“That is pretty amazing, given that the Milky Way is 500 times larger and more than 1,000 times heavier than the dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1,” Seth said.

One explanation is that M60-UCD1 was once a large galaxy containing 10 billion stars, but then it passed very close to the center of an even larger galaxy, M60, and in that process all the stars and dark matter in the outer part of the galaxy were torn away and became part of M60.

The team believes that M60-UCD1 may eventually be pulled to fully merge with M60, which has its own monster black hole that weighs a whopping 4.5 billion solar masses, or more than 1,000 times bigger than the black hole in our galaxy. When that happens, the black holes in both galaxies also likely will merge. Both galaxies are 50 million light-years away.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., in Washington.

For images and more information about Hubble, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/hubble

(via shychemist)

September 14, 2014

ageofdestruction:

starling: Solar corona, photographed by SOHO, 9th September 2014.

16 frames, inverted. Sequence covers about 7 hours. The Sun is moving out of the constellation Leo toward Virgo.

The three prominent stars above the Sun are (left to right) Sigma Leonis (σ Leo), 36 G. Leonis (I think), and Chi Leonis (χ Leo).

Image credit: NASA/SOHO. Animation: AgeOfDestruction.

September 14, 2014

New Galactic Supercluster Map Shows Milky Way’s ‘Heavenly’ Home

A new cosmic map is giving scientists an unprecedented look at the boundaries for the giant supercluster that is home to Earth’s own Milky Way galaxy and many others. Scientists even have a name for the colossal galactic group: Laniakea, Hawaiian for “immeasurable heaven.”

Image 1: Scientists have created the first map of a colossal supercluster of galaxies known as Laniakea, the home of Earth’s Milky Way galaxy and many other. This computer simulation, a still from a Nature journal video, depicts the giant supercluster, with the Milky Way’s location shown as a red dot. Credit: [Nature Video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rENyyRwxpHo)

Image 2: This computer-generated depiction of the Laniakea Supercluster of galaxies, which includes the Milky Way galaxy containing Earth’s solar system, shows a view of the supercluster as seen from the supergalactic equatorial plane. Credit: SDvision interactive visualization software by DP at CEA/Saclay, France

The scientists responsible for the new 3D map suggest that the newfound Laniakea supercluster of galaxies may even be part of a still-larger structure they have not fully defined yet.

"We live in something called ‘the cosmic web,’ where galaxies are connected in tendrils separated by giant voids," said lead study author Brent Tully, an astronomer at the University of Hawaii at Honolulu.

Galactic structures in space

Galaxies are not spread randomly throughout the universe. Instead, they clump in groups, such as the one Earth is in, the Local Group, which contains dozens of galaxies. In turn, these groups are part of massive clusters made up of hundreds of galaxies, all interconnected in a web of filaments in which galaxies are strung like pearls. The colossal structures known as superclusters form at the intersections of filaments.

The giant structures making up the universe often have unclear boundaries. To better define these structures, astronomers examined Cosmicflows-2, the largest-ever catalog of the motions of galaxies, reasoning that each galaxy belongs to the structure whose gravity is making it flow toward.

"We have a new way of defining large-scale structures from the velocities of galaxies rather than just looking at their distribution in the sky," Tully said.

(via christinetheastrophysicist)

September 14, 2014
christinetheastrophysicist:

Tectonic Plates on Europa
Scientists have found evidence in favor of tectonic plates on Jupiter’s moon Europa. Images from the Galileo spacecraft have shown an expanding crust similar to mid-ocean ridges on Earth that are formed by seafloor spreading.
By studying and reconstructing the surface of the moon, the scientists have found that a large amount of the surface in the northern latitudes were missing. They believe that the missing surface crust has moved underneath another section of the surface since there is a lack of mountains in the area, suggesting subduction. In addition, ice volcanoes have been found above the subduction zones.
This evidence of geological activity shows that Europa is more Earth-like than originally thought, and it is important when considering Europa as a potential habitable world.
Image: Illustration of a subduction zone on Europa. (Credit: Noah Kroese, I.NK)

christinetheastrophysicist:

Tectonic Plates on Europa

Scientists have found evidence in favor of tectonic plates on Jupiter’s moon Europa. Images from the Galileo spacecraft have shown an expanding crust similar to mid-ocean ridges on Earth that are formed by seafloor spreading.

By studying and reconstructing the surface of the moon, the scientists have found that a large amount of the surface in the northern latitudes were missing. They believe that the missing surface crust has moved underneath another section of the surface since there is a lack of mountains in the area, suggesting subduction. In addition, ice volcanoes have been found above the subduction zones.

This evidence of geological activity shows that Europa is more Earth-like than originally thought, and it is important when considering Europa as a potential habitable world.

Image: Illustration of a subduction zone on Europa. (Credit: Noah Kroese, I.NK)

September 14, 2014
ucresearch:

Seeing a supernovae within hours of the explosion
For the first time ever, scientists have gathered direct evidence of a rare Wolf-Rayet star being linked to a specific type of stellar explosion known as a Type IIb supernova. Peter Nugent of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory says they caught this star – a whopping 360 million light years away – just a few hours after it exploded.
Hear more about this discovery →

ucresearch:

Seeing a supernovae within hours of the explosion

For the first time ever, scientists have gathered direct evidence of a rare Wolf-Rayet star being linked to a specific type of stellar explosion known as a Type IIb supernova. Peter Nugent of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory says they caught this star – a whopping 360 million light years away – just a few hours after it exploded.

Hear more about this discovery →

(via christinetheastrophysicist)